Dr. Scoglio's Published Studies

Dr. Scoglio's Published Studies

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Here's An Assembly Of Dr. Stefano Scoglio's Published Studies

Here's An Assembly Of Dr. Stefano Scoglio's Published Studies

iGalen has been granted the exclusive rights to market, 

Dr. Scoglio's stem cell product, KlaMax.   

iGalen has been granted the exclusive rights to market, 

Dr. Scoglio's stem cell product, KlaMax.   

A unique type of AFA-phycocyanins, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pigment typical of cyanobacterial algae, that have shown to be up to 200 times more powerful than more ordinary phycocyanins, and the most potent antioxidant, up to 40 times more effective than more renown antioxidants such as quercetine and catechines.

A unique spectrum of polysaccharides and polyphenols.

A wide spectrum of carotenoids, including xantophylls such as luein and zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and lycopene.

Most importantly, AFA is the highest living source of the neuromodulator phenylethylamine, defined as the molecule of love, a molecule endogenous to the human organism that we produce when we are in love, happy and healthy.

While AFA algae is a very good nutrient-dense superfood, special extracts developed, patented and researched by our Scientist Dr. Stefano Scoglio, concentrate such unique molecules, and are the constituents of our unique proprietary KlaMax® product.

A unique type of AFA-phycocyanins, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pigment typical of cyanobacterial algae, that have shown to be up to 200 times more powerful than more ordinary phycocyanins, and the most potent antioxidant, up to 40 times more effective than more renown antioxidants such as quercetine and catechines.

A unique spectrum of polysaccharides and polyphenols.

A wide spectrum of carotenoids, including xantophylls such as luein and zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and lycopene.

Most importantly, AFA is the highest living source of the neuromodulator phenylethylamine, defined as the molecule of love, a molecule endogenous to the human organism that we produce when we are in love, happy and healthy.

While AFA algae is a very good nutrient-dense superfood, special extracts developed, patented and researched by our Scientist Dr. Stefano Scoglio, concentrate such unique molecules, and are the constituents of our unique proprietary KlaMax® product.

J Med Food. 2017 Nov 8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.0181. [Epub ahead of print]

The Effect of Experimental Supplementation with the Klamath Algae Extract Klamin on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Author information

1 Neurological and Psychiatric Child Unit, Department of Pediatric, Alessandria Hospital , Alessandria, Italy .

2 Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino "Carlo Bo ," Urbino, Italy .

3 Nutritherapy Research Center , Urbino, Italy .

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin® extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Klamin extract in treating a group of subjects diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects, aged 6-15, who had been diagnosed with ADHD according to the DSM-IV TR criteria, were enrolled. The supplement was administered to all the subjects, who reported to an ADHD clinic for routine follow-up visits. Observations were made and data collected over a 6-month period. After 6 months of therapy the subjects appeared to show significant improvements based on assessments of their overall functioning, behavioral aspects related to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, attention functions in both the selective and sustained component and executive functions. The study appears to confirm the initial hypothesis that the Klamin extract may positively affect the expression of ADHD symptoms. Additional larger studies on the effects of Klamin on ADHD are needed to further investigate the potential of this extract in ADHD treatment.

KEYWORDS:

algae extract; aphanizomenon; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); phenylethylamine • supplementations

Cremonte M1, Sisti D2, Maraucci I1, Giribone S1, Colombo E3, Rocchi MBL2, Scoglio S3.

J Med Food. 2017 Nov 8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.0181. [Epub ahead of print]

The Effect of Experimental Supplementation with the Klamath Algae Extract Klamin on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Author information

1 Neurological and Psychiatric Child Unit, Department of Pediatric, Alessandria Hospital , Alessandria, Italy .

2 Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino "Carlo Bo ," Urbino, Italy .

3 Nutritherapy Research Center , Urbino, Italy .

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin® extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Klamin extract in treating a group of subjects diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects, aged 6-15, who had been diagnosed with ADHD according to the DSM-IV TR criteria, were enrolled. The supplement was administered to all the subjects, who reported to an ADHD clinic for routine follow-up visits. Observations were made and data collected over a 6-month period. After 6 months of therapy the subjects appeared to show significant improvements based on assessments of their overall functioning, behavioral aspects related to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, attention functions in both the selective and sustained component and executive functions. The study appears to confirm the initial hypothesis that the Klamin extract may positively affect the expression of ADHD symptoms. Additional larger studies on the effects of Klamin on ADHD are needed to further investigate the potential of this extract in ADHD treatment.

KEYWORDS:

algae extract; aphanizomenon; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); phenylethylamine • supplementations

Cremonte M1, Sisti D2, Maraucci I1, Giribone S1, Colombo E3, Rocchi MBL2, Scoglio S3.

Format: Abstract

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J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2016 Dec;31(6):1492-7. doi: 10.3109/14756366.2016.1149478. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Inhibitory effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae constituents on human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity.

Author information

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of the edible microalga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) on human UDP-α-d-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) activity, a cytosolic enzyme involved both in tumor progression and in phytochemical bioavailability.

METHODS:

Both the hydrophilic and ethanolic AFA extracts as well as the constitutive active principles phycocyanin (PC), phycocyanobilin (PCB) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were tested.

RESULTS:

Among AFA components, PCB presented the strongest inhibitory effect on UGDH activity, acting as a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP-glucose and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to NAD(+). In preliminary experiments, AFA PCB was also effective in reducing the colony formation capacity of PC-3 prostate cancer cells and FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, these findings confirmed that AFA and its active principles are natural compounds with high biological activity. Further studies evaluating the effects of AFA PCB in reducing tumor cell growth and phytochemical glucuronidation are encouraged.

KEYWORDS:

Klamath algae; phycocyanin; phycocyanobilin; tumor cell growth inhibition

PMID:

 

26903444

 

DOI:

 

10.3109/14756366.2016.1149478

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2016 Dec;31(6):1492-7. doi: 10.3109/14756366.2016.1149478. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Inhibitory effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae constituents on human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity.

Author information

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of the edible microalga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) on human UDP-α-d-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) activity, a cytosolic enzyme involved both in tumor progression and in phytochemical bioavailability.

METHODS:

Both the hydrophilic and ethanolic AFA extracts as well as the constitutive active principles phycocyanin (PC), phycocyanobilin (PCB) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were tested.

RESULTS:

Among AFA components, PCB presented the strongest inhibitory effect on UGDH activity, acting as a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP-glucose and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to NAD(+). In preliminary experiments, AFA PCB was also effective in reducing the colony formation capacity of PC-3 prostate cancer cells and FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, these findings confirmed that AFA and its active principles are natural compounds with high biological activity. Further studies evaluating the effects of AFA PCB in reducing tumor cell growth and phytochemical glucuronidation are encouraged.

KEYWORDS:

Klamath algae; phycocyanin; phycocyanobilin; tumor cell growth inhibition

PMID:

 

26903444

 

DOI:

 

10.3109/14756366.2016.1149478

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Phytomedicine. 2014 Jun 15;21(7):992-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.03.006. Epub 2014 Mar 30.

Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

Author information

Abstract

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

AFA-mycosporine-like amino acids; AFA-phycocyanin; Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Klamath algae extract; Klamin(®); MAO-B inhibition

PMID:

 

24690316

 

DOI:

 

10.1016/j.phymed.2014.03.006

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Phytomedicine. 2014 Jun 15;21(7):992-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.03.006. Epub 2014 Mar 30.

Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

Author information

Abstract

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

AFA-mycosporine-like amino acids; AFA-phycocyanin; Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Klamath algae extract; Klamin(®); MAO-B inhibition

PMID:

 

24690316

 

DOI:

 

10.1016/j.phymed.2014.03.006

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

J Med Food. 2010 Feb;13(1):223-7. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0257.

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from the food supplement Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

Author information

Abstract

The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay has been widely used to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of pure antioxidant compounds and antioxidant plant/food extracts. However, it has never been applied to natural compounds derived from microalgae-based dietary supplements, namely, phycocyanin (PC) and phycocyanobilin (PCB), for which a strong radical scavenger activity has been documented. In this article, we applied the ORAC method to investigate the capacity of PC and PCB purified from the edible microalga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae to directly quench peroxyl radicals in comparison to well-known antioxidants molecules such as Trolox, ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione. As a result, PCB was found to have the highest ORAC value (22.18 micromol of Trolox/micromol of compound), comparable to that of PC (20.33 micromol of Trolox/micromol of compound), hence confirming that PCB is mostly responsible for the scavenger activity of PC and making the protein a possible source of the antioxidant in vivo. Our data further corroborate the use of these natural compounds from A. flos-aquae as dietary antioxidant supplements in the treatment of clinical conditions related to oxidative stress.

PMID:

 

20136460

 

DOI:

 

10.1089/jmf.2008.0257

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

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J Med Food. 2010 Feb;13(1):223-7. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0257.

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity of phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from the food supplement Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

Author information

Abstract

The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay has been widely used to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of pure antioxidant compounds and antioxidant plant/food extracts. However, it has never been applied to natural compounds derived from microalgae-based dietary supplements, namely, phycocyanin (PC) and phycocyanobilin (PCB), for which a strong radical scavenger activity has been documented. In this article, we applied the ORAC method to investigate the capacity of PC and PCB purified from the edible microalga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae to directly quench peroxyl radicals in comparison to well-known antioxidants molecules such as Trolox, ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione. As a result, PCB was found to have the highest ORAC value (22.18 micromol of Trolox/micromol of compound), comparable to that of PC (20.33 micromol of Trolox/micromol of compound), hence confirming that PCB is mostly responsible for the scavenger activity of PC and making the protein a possible source of the antioxidant in vivo. Our data further corroborate the use of these natural compounds from A. flos-aquae as dietary antioxidant supplements in the treatment of clinical conditions related to oxidative stress.

PMID:

 

20136460

 

DOI:

 

10.1089/jmf.2008.0257

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 Mar;79(2):117-23. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.79.2.117.

Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

Author information

Abstract

Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

PMID:

 

20108213

 

DOI:

 

10.1024/0300-9831.79.2.117

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

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Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 Mar;79(2):117-23. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831.79.2.117.

Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

Author information

Abstract

Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

PMID:

 

20108213

 

DOI:

 

10.1024/0300-9831.79.2.117

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Apr;25(4):235-40. doi: 10.1080/09513590802632506.

Effect of a 2-month treatment with Klamin, a Klamath algae extract, on the general well-being, antioxidant profile and oxidative status of postmenopausal women.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

Because of a growing demand for alternative treatments of the psychological and somatic/vasomotor symptoms related to menopausal transition, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of a 2-month supplementation period with the Klamath algae extract (Klamin, Nutratec Srl, Urbino, Italy) on the general and psychological well-being of a group of 21 menopausal women not treated with hormonal therapy, as well as on their oxidative stress status and level of antioxidants. Klamin is an extract naturally rich in powerful algal antioxidant molecules (AFA-phycocyanins) and concentrated with Klamath algae's natural neuromodulators (phenylethylamine as well as natural selective MAO-B inhibitors).

CONCLUSIONS:

At the end of the Klamin supplementation period, plasma lipid peroxidation significantly decreased (as proven by a significant lowering of plasma MDA levels), while the overall antioxidant system improved thanks to the significant increase in the plasma levels of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol. Furthermore, the average Green Scale score, which evaluates menopausal symptoms and thus by contrast the overall and psychological well-being of menopausal women, was significantly reduced. As it did not show the steroid-like effects on the hormonal parameters, Klamin could be proposed both as a valid natural remedy for women seeking an alternative to hormonal therapy, as well as as a complementary treatment for many climacteric symptoms.

PMID:

 

19408172

 

DOI:

 

10.1080/09513590802632506

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Apr;25(4):235-40. doi: 10.1080/09513590802632506.

Effect of a 2-month treatment with Klamin, a Klamath algae extract, on the general well-being, antioxidant profile and oxidative status of postmenopausal women.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

Because of a growing demand for alternative treatments of the psychological and somatic/vasomotor symptoms related to menopausal transition, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of a 2-month supplementation period with the Klamath algae extract (Klamin, Nutratec Srl, Urbino, Italy) on the general and psychological well-being of a group of 21 menopausal women not treated with hormonal therapy, as well as on their oxidative stress status and level of antioxidants. Klamin is an extract naturally rich in powerful algal antioxidant molecules (AFA-phycocyanins) and concentrated with Klamath algae's natural neuromodulators (phenylethylamine as well as natural selective MAO-B inhibitors).

CONCLUSIONS:

At the end of the Klamin supplementation period, plasma lipid peroxidation significantly decreased (as proven by a significant lowering of plasma MDA levels), while the overall antioxidant system improved thanks to the significant increase in the plasma levels of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol. Furthermore, the average Green Scale score, which evaluates menopausal symptoms and thus by contrast the overall and psychological well-being of menopausal women, was significantly reduced. As it did not show the steroid-like effects on the hormonal parameters, Klamin could be proposed both as a valid natural remedy for women seeking an alternative to hormonal therapy, as well as as a complementary treatment for many climacteric symptoms.

PMID:

 

19408172

 

DOI:

 

10.1080/09513590802632506

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Life Sci. 2004 Sep 24;75(19):2353-62.

Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

Author information

Abstract

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel natural extract from AFA enriched with PC to protect normal human erythrocytes and plasma samples against oxidative damage in vitro. In red blood cells, oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical generator [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH] were significantly lowered by the AFA extract in a time- and dose-dependent manner; at the same time, the depletion of cytosolic glutathione was delayed. In plasma samples, the natural extract inhibited the extent of lipid oxidation induced by the pro-oxidant agent cupric chloride (CuCl2); a concomitant increase of plasma resistance to oxidation was observed as evaluated by conjugated diene formation. The involvement of PC in the antioxidant protection of the AFA extract against the oxidative damage was demonstrated by investigating the spectral changes of PC induced by AAPH or CuCl2. The incubation of the extract with the oxidizing agents led to a significant decrease in the absorption of PC at 620 nm accompanied with disappearance of its blue color, thus indicating a rapid oxidation of the protein. In the light of these in vitro results, the potential clinical applications of this natural compound are under investigation.

PMID:

 

15350832

 

DOI:

 

10.1016/j.lfs.2004.06.004

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Format: Abstract

Send to

Life Sci. 2004 Sep 24;75(19):2353-62.

Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

Author information

Abstract

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel natural extract from AFA enriched with PC to protect normal human erythrocytes and plasma samples against oxidative damage in vitro. In red blood cells, oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical generator [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH] were significantly lowered by the AFA extract in a time- and dose-dependent manner; at the same time, the depletion of cytosolic glutathione was delayed. In plasma samples, the natural extract inhibited the extent of lipid oxidation induced by the pro-oxidant agent cupric chloride (CuCl2); a concomitant increase of plasma resistance to oxidation was observed as evaluated by conjugated diene formation. The involvement of PC in the antioxidant protection of the AFA extract against the oxidative damage was demonstrated by investigating the spectral changes of PC induced by AAPH or CuCl2. The incubation of the extract with the oxidizing agents led to a significant decrease in the absorption of PC at 620 nm accompanied with disappearance of its blue color, thus indicating a rapid oxidation of the protein. In the light of these in vitro results, the potential clinical applications of this natural compound are under investigation.

PMID:

 

15350832

 

DOI:

 

10.1016/j.lfs.2004.06.004

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Copyright O'Neill Enterprises Inc. 2018

Copyright O'Neill Enterprises Inc. 2018

Disclaimer

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. 

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Disclaimer

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. 

This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Dr. Scoglio Interview Nov 16, 2017

Dr. Scoglio Interview Nov 16, 2017

Dr. Scoglio's Interview As Conducted By Dr. John Gluckman November 17, 2017

Dr. Scoglio's Interview As Conducted By Dr. John Gluckman November 17, 2017

Hear Dr. Scoglio share his knowledge, background and experiences about AFA, KlaMax and more. It's an amazing one hour and 20 minute call.

Hear Dr. Scoglio share his knowledge, background and experiences about AFA, KlaMax and more. It's an amazing one hour and 20 minute call.

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